Combs and Wattles
The comb sits on top of the hen’s head and in a healthy hen is likely to be red, plump and glossy, this often denotes she’s in lay. Different breeds of hen have different shaped combs like the image below. They can be Rose or Buttercup, Walnut or Strawberry, Pea or V shaped. Most ex-caged hens have a typical single comb with five or six points. A single comb is the most common type.
If your hen’s comb becomes pale or floppy it can be an indicator that something might not be right with her. Although, please note that this may not be the case when you first adopt an ex-commercial hen – all with be explained below.
Secondly, for the purpose of this article, we are talking about ex-commercials which are typically Warrens as some other breeds have naturally dark combs and wattles like the Silkie.
A healthy comb on an adult hen should sit on top of her head and be red, plump and glossy. A healthy comb is often a good indicator that she is in lay, therefore, if the comb is pale, but plump it probably means that she is healthy, but off lay.
Young hens typically have much smaller combs, often resembling an inverted saw blade. So, if your adult hen has a tiny comb it is likely that she is showing signs of health problems.
When you first collect your commercial hens on rehoming days you will notice that their combs are usually large, pale and floppy, think of it like she’s having a bad hair day. It is fairly common for the comb to hang over your hen’s eye on one side. In the warm farm environment, the comb acts as a heat dissipater to keep herself cool around so many other hens. Once she goes home with a new family and is allowed to free-range, her comb will slowly shrink and become a vibrant red colour.
A hen that has a dry, shrivelled or flaky comb generally has an underlying health problem. Whereas a purple or blue-tinged comb is a sign that she has cyanosis due to circulatory problems.
Fungal conditions can cause greyish-white spots on the comb and nodules on the comb can be a symptom of fowl pox.
The comb and wattles are usually the first part of your hen to be grabbed during pecking order disputes and squabbles, both will bleed profusely if pecked or cut. We advise a thick layer of Vaseline be applied to combs when merging new hens with existing ones as this can reduce the grip of the pecking hen so that when she pecks at the new hen, her beak won’t be able to grip as hard and will reduce the damage.
You should also be vigilant during frosty or extreme weather as a large floppy comb can easily be affected by frostbite and you may notice the tips of the comb turning black – this is particularly noticeable with cockerel combs.
We have lots more advice on combs on our Hen Health Problems page where you can filter by symptoms to see possible treatments and advice.
Wattles are fleshy flaps of skin that hang either side of your hen’s throat starting just behind the beak, we tend to notice them more in cockerels where they are used as an ornament for courting potential mates. Large wattles in a cockerel are a sign of good nutrition, high testosterone and a potentially successful mate! Wattles also help to cool your birds down. Blood circulating from the comb to the wattles is cooled and helps to lower the chicken’s temperature during hot weather.
As with combs, in a laying hen, the healthy wattles should be large, soft, and waxy.